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Maha Shivaratri 大湿婆之夜

2017-02-27 12:15:44 justyoga 21


Shiva is the most widely interpreted word in the world of literature. People irrespective of their cultural backgrounds love the concept for its versatility.

“湿婆”是在世界文学中被演绎得最广泛的词。不管是什么文化背景的人,皆因他的多样化而喜爱他。



Shiva is a formless and genderless supreme consciousness to some. In other words Shiva is energy. For a few others he is an ordinary man. He is an epitome of anger to some and to a few others he is an embodiment of love. He is a monk in the graveyard to some and according to a few others he makes the world itself a graveyard by destroying the whole of it one fine day! There are many who have not only attached him different forms, but, they have also attached names. They range anywhere between 108 and 1008!


湿婆对一些人来说是一种无形和无性的最高意识。换一句话来说,湿婆即是能量。对一些人来说他只是个普通人。对一些人来说他是气愤和恼怒的缩影,对另一些人来说他是爱的化身。对一些人而言,他一直长眠于地下,对另一些人来说,他仅在一天内就摧毁了整个世界!湿婆有将近108个化身,因此他有108个名字。



Yet, Shiva remains a mystery! How do we then understand Shiva well? 然而,湿婆仍旧是个未解之谜。我们对湿婆的了解究竟有多少?


Let us go to the Sanskrit root of the word

让我们来了解一下这个词的梵文词根

शिवः – शेरते अस्मिन् सर्वे इति शिवः


शिवः Shiva means that in which everything merges. 意味着融合一切。



The idea of merging is quite peculiar. Does man ever get merged into himself? The fatigue of the body and the mind will push the body and mind to rest. In that state of rest, all his thoughts, actions and experiences get merged into the self. It is called sleep. Sleep is the period in which man merges into the self. But it is involuntary!

融合是一个很特别的概念。人类是否真的能够与自我融合? 身体和心灵的疲劳会促使身心休息。在这种休息状态下,个体的所有思想、行为和经历都融合在自我之中。睡眠是人类融入自我的最佳时刻。但睡眠是人类的非自愿行为。



Can man merge into himself voluntarily? 

Yes! The act of merging into oneself is called Self-study.


那么,人类是否可能自愿的进行自我融合呢?

当然可以,人类自我融合行为被称为自我修习。


There are three kinds of Self-study.

自我修习有三种状态。


The first one is Self-criticism. Man here, looks deep into himself only in terms of his negative thoughts, actions and experiences. This is opposite to growth. This kind of a self-study practiced time and again will lead to stagnation in life and causes other mental disorders.

第一种状态称为自我批判。在这个状态中,人们只是深入的观察自己的负面想法、行为以及经验。 这与成长相悖,反复练习会导致生活停滞,甚至其他精神障碍。



The second state is called as self-knowledge. Here man looks both at his good and bad sides. Alas! He merely looks into it. He does not do anything with them. To merely know ‘what I have’ and ‘what I am’ is also a path of stagnation. To rectify the bad and become good and also convert the good into better and eventually the best, is vital to man’s growth. Knowledge when not put into practice will degrade itself into information!

第二种状态称为自我觉知。在这个状态中人们同时观察自己消极和积极的两方面。但是,他只是看着它。他什么也不做。 仅仅看到和知道我拥有什么、我是什么,而没有作为,同样是一种停滞。将恶转换为善,将善转换为极善,这对人类发展是极为重要的关键。不结合实践的知识,仅仅是杂乱无章的信息!



The third kind is called introspection – ‘The art of looking deep into one’s own negative thoughts, actions and experiences, eventually, to change them into positive’. Such a man is a true seeker of growth and progress. He does not merely look into self, but acts upon the negativities therein. He also goes a step ahead to receive feedback from people and judiciously incorporates them in his life to become individually vibrant and socially productive.

第三种状态称为自我反省。“内观的艺术”是将负面的想法、行为及经验转变为正面的想法、行为及经验。这样的人才是成长和进步的真正追求者。他不仅仅只是自我观察,同时还针对负面采取相应的措施。他能够向前跨出一步,从实相中获得反馈并融合进他的生活,最终成为充满活力的个体和社会生产力的一份子。



Generally, the deeper man goes inside, in terms of self-study, greater is his fear. Self-study is like the act of mining. Mining leads to a great excavation of waste as well, before a valuable mineral is extracted! So does the human mind in the process of self-study. He excavates and finds the negativity to the fore and one day a great amount of positivity is discovered.

渐渐的,他在自我修习的道路上不断深入自我,越深入也就越恐惧。自我修行就如同采矿。采矿挖掘的过程中,在最终获得矿物之前,会产生大量的废物。这同样类似于人类的自我修习过程。他在自我挖掘和探寻的过程中,先会经历大量的负面情绪的力量,最终才能获得正面的真知。



On the day of शिवरात्रिः (shivaratri), it is this state of introspection which is essential. This action of introspection will make the festival meaningful.

在शिवरात्रिः (大湿婆之夜) 当天,自我反省是必不可少的。自我反省赋予了这个节日的重要意义。


But what is the significance of रात्रिः(ratri) in the word शिवरात्रिः?

在शिवरात्रिः (shivaratri) 中的रात्रिः (ratri) 又有怎样的重要意义呢?

 

राति सुखं इति रात्रिः.

That which gives us pleasure is called रात्रिः.

给予我们愉悦快乐的即是रात्रिः (夜晚)

 

A man who gets the pleasure out of introspection has thus celebrated शिवरात्रिः.

शिवरात्रिः (湿婆之夜) 即是通过自我反省而获得愉悦快乐。



Man naturally craves for pleasure. He also seeks comforts and convenience. Greater is the degree of pleasure, comforts and convenience when he introspects and finds a solution to his existing troubles and struggles! Thus pleasure is associated with a meaningful act of introspection.

人天生渴望快乐。他还寻求舒适和便利。当他在反省过程中找到解决自身存在的问题和矛盾的方法时,他所获得的快乐、舒适和便利的程度将会更大!因此,快乐是和有意义的内省行为联系在一起的。



But the question is why should one introspect only during the night? Has that idea something to do with astronomy?

但问题是,为什么一定要在晚上自我反省?这个观念与天文学有关吗?

 

May be, yes! Many people do opine that शिवरात्रिः (shivaratri) is related to certain aspects of astronomy. However, in this article we resort to bhagavadgītā to understand the essence of introspection ‘in the night’.

有可能,是的!很多人都认为शिवरात्रिः(大湿婆之夜)有其天文学背景。然而,在这篇文章中,我们主要用薄伽梵歌的概念来理解夜间反省的本质。

 

Night here is not a reference to the time after sunset. 这里所指的夜晚并不是单纯指的太阳落山后的时间。



Generally, human beings spend majority of their life in search of material world. They find that to be empowering and enlightening. For such people, the inner self appears dark and disempowering.

大部分的情况下,人类将他们的大部分时间都用在物质世界的寻求上。他们认为物质世界能够给予他们启发和力量。对于他们而言,深度内在的自我是黑暗的,是无力的。

 

But a man who is introspective finds the inner world or the self enlightening and empowering! However, he finds the external world dull and dim!

但对一个通过自我反省去探索内在世界并获得启发和力量的个体而言,外在世界是昏暗且沉闷。

 

Thus, moving towards the neglected area – the inner self is शिवरात्रिः (shivaratri).

因此,走向未知的区域-深度的自我,即是शिवरात्रिः (大湿婆之夜) 的意义。



On this day man can dance, sing, intoxicate, beat the drums and even die, but as long as they do not transform him into becoming individually vibrant and socially productive, he has not celebrated the festival at all. Introspection is the golden path to transformation!

在这一天,人们跳舞,唱歌, 击鼓,甚至狂欢致死,但是,如果无法转换成为充满活力和创造力的个体,这个节日的庆祝也是无意义的。自我反省是通向自我转换的黄金之路。



There is nothing good or bad at the end of the day! What is day to the crow is night to the owl!

然而,一切终究没有任何好坏之分!雄鸡的白夜,便是乌鸦的夜晚!


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