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(连载一 epi. 1) 肚皮惧怕 Fear of the Belly

2016-09-26 16:49:21 justyoga 25
Series One 连载一 

Healthy abdominal muscles are strong, not hard. 健康的腹肌是强壮的,但不是僵硬的

Have you ever stood at the mirror, sucked in your stomach and thought, "I wish I could look like this all the time?" If you grew up in the China, your answer is probably yes. Madison Avenue has sold us the notion that taut abdominals are the quintessence of health and beauty. Rock-hard bellies are used to promote everything from underwear to cereal.
你是否曾经站在镜子前面,用力收紧肚子,心想“如果我能一直保持这样就好了!”如果你是中国人,你很可能会有这样的经历。麦迪森大道(位于纽约的美国广告中心)灌输给我们的概念是:紧实的腹部是健康与美的标准。像石头一样坚硬的腹肌在各种广告中出现:从内衣到麦片。

But if you yearn for the rippled look of "six-pack" abs, consider what you may sacrifice to obtain it: That look might cost you flexibility and freedom of movement. Overdoing abs exercises can lead to a flattening of the lumbar curve, creating a weakened spinal structure. "We're even beginning to see hunchback conditions because of excessive abdominal crunches".
如果你渴望有一个六块腹肌翻滚的腹部,那么你要好好考虑一下为了它要做出怎样的牺牲:那样的形象可能会让你失去运动时的灵活性和自由度。过度的腹肌练习还会导致腰椎的曲度减小,从而使脊柱的结构变得不稳定。“我们甚至发现有些驼背是因为过度练习仰卧起坐而引起的。”


"We're a culture afraid of the belly,"
 “我们生活在一个惧怕肚子的文化中。”

"We're a culture afraid of the belly,” i.e. such a pity. In our societal obsession with abdominal minimalism, we often lose sight of the true nature of this crucial part of the body. Abdominal muscles assist breathing, align the pelvis, flex and rotate the trunk, keep the torso erect, support the lumbar spine, and hold in the organs of digestion. The crunch-obsessed fitness buffs are partly right, though: Strong, toned muscles at the core of your body support good health. But that does not mean we should cultivate a permanent navel cramp, hold our breath, and stand like soldiers on parade. Take a look at the Buddha, perhaps the world's best-known yogi. In many paintings and statues, he doesn't have "abs of steel." Yogis know that chronically tight abdominals aren't any healthier than chronically tight hamstrings or back muscles. Yoga can help you develop the perfect balance of abdominal strength, suppleness, relaxation, and awareness.

Lord Ganesha 
象神伽内什
Laughing Buddha
弥勒佛

“我们生活在一个惧怕肚子的文化中”,这是多么可惜啊。我们当今社会对于‘肚子最小化’的执念,使我们已经忘记了这个重要的身体部位原本应有的样子。腹部肌肉群的作用是辅助呼吸,保存骨盆正位,帮助躯干的屈伸和扭转,保持躯干挺直,保护腰椎,并使腹内的消化器官保持在原位。那些执着于腹肌练习的健身方式所宣扬的也不是全无道理:强壮、健美的核心肌肉是身体健康的保证。但是这并不意味着我们要始终收紧肚脐,屏住呼吸,像游行队伍中的士兵那样站立。去看一看佛陀——这个世上最著名的瑜伽修行者,你就明白了。在众多佛陀的画像与雕塑中,他并没有“像钢铁一样坚硬的腹肌”。因为瑜伽修行者知道,长期紧绷的腹肌和长期紧绷的后腿肌腱或者长期紧绷的背肌一样,都是不健康的。而瑜伽可以帮助你在腹部的力量、柔韧性、放松度和觉知之间找到一个完美的平衡。


Of course, different yoga teachers approach abdominal exercise in different ways. Some approach the belly primarily through sensory exploration, helping us become sensitive to all the layers of muscles and organs; others use standing poses, employing the arms and legs to strengthen the abdominals in their function as stabilizers for the limbs. Still others stress motion, emphasizing that the value of abdominal muscles lies in their ability to move and change shape. But most of the yoga teachers highlights four themes in common: 
(1) Movement springs from the body's center of gravity just below the navel; 
(2) Asanas train this core to act as a stable base and fluid source of movement; 
(3) Abdominal muscles should be toned but not tense; 
(4) The first step in abdominal fitness requires learning to sense this core, becoming familiar with it from the inside.
当然,每个瑜伽老师对于腹肌的练习都有不同的方法。有些老师通过对感官的探索来训练腹肌,使我们对腹腔中所有的肌肉和内脏器官都很敏感;有些老师通过站立的体式,借助四肢来加强腹部平衡四肢的能力。还有些老师着重于腹部的运动,强调腹肌的价值在于它们能够运动并改变形状。然而,大部分瑜伽老师在教学中都会强调以下4个方面:
(1)动作的始点在肚脐下方的身体重心处;
2)体式练习使核心成为一个稳固的基础和一个动态的运动中心;
(3)腹肌应该是结实的,而不是紧绷的;
(4)练习腹肌的第一步需要学习感知核心肌肉群,从身体的内在熟悉它们。


Tummy Structure 腹部结构

A basic knowledge of the belly's anatomy can help us approach core work with a more accurate mental map. So let's peel away the layers and see what lies under the skin.
基本的腹部解剖学知识,可以使我们在进行核心练习时,在头脑中形成一幅准确的画面。所以让我们一层一层的来了解我们的皮肤下面是什么样子吧。


Abdominal skin differs from much of the skin covering the rest of the body. It has a subcutaneous tissue that loves to hoard fat. It can store up to several inches. Those fat-free torsos you see in advertisements are possible for less than 10 percent of the population. You have to have really thin skin to show muscle, explains Richard Cotton, spokesperson for the American Council on Exercise, and this takes more than diligent exercise; it takes the right genetics.
腹部的皮肤和我们身体其他部位的皮肤不大一样。它有一层非常容易囤积脂肪的皮下组织。这层皮下组织可以储存几英寸厚的脂肪。那些你在广告中看到的没有一点脂肪的腹部只可能存在于不到10%的人当中。“要想显出肌肉,你的皮肤必须非常薄”,美国运动协会发言人Richard Cotton先生解释,“这不仅要靠勤奋的练习,也需要你有那样的基因”。


You have to be young too. Once fat cells accumulate around your torso, they don't disappear. You can starve them; they'll shrink. But they will always be there, endeavoring to fill up. Too much belly fat—we all know—is unhealthy. But working too hard to eliminate fat can also cause serious problems. Women can suffer estrogen depletion, bone weakness, and fractures. "A few millimeters of fat over those muscles don't matter," Cotton says. Most adults, including distance runners and people of optimal health, carry a slight spare tire around their middles.
另外,年轻也是一个因素。因为脂肪细胞一旦在你的肚子上囤积,就再不会消失。你可以饿着它们,使它们变小,但是它们还是一直在那里,随时等着被喂大。我们都知道太多的腹部脂肪是不健康的。但是过于猛烈的去脂运动也会给身体带来严重的问题。对于女性,可以会导致雌激素不足、骨质疏松和骨折。“在肌肉上有几毫米的脂肪是没问题的” ,Cotton先生说。大部分成年人,包括长跑运动员和最健康的人群,在他们的腰上也都有圈小“游泳圈”。


Instead of obsessing about fat, we'd do better to focus deeper. Right under the skin, a sturdy wall of four paired muscles stretches over our internal organs. On the surface, the strap like rectus abdominus extends along the front, from pubic bone to sternum. On either side, a thin but powerful muscle, called the external oblique, courses diagonally from the ribs to the rectus, forming a "V" when viewed from the front. Running perpendicular to the external oblique’s, the internal oblique’s lie just below. These two pairs of muscles work in concert, rotating the trunk and flexing it diagonally. The innermost layer of abdominal muscle, the transversus, runs horizontally, wrapping the torso like a corset. You flex this muscle to pull in your belly. The sinewy, three-ply sheath formed by the transversus and the obliques provides a strong, expandable support; it protects the viscera and provides compression that aids elimination and a housing flexible enough for diaphragmatic breathing.


与其执着于去掉脂肪,我们不如关注一些更深层的东西。紧贴皮肤的下方,有四组结实的肌肉,环绕在我们的内脏器官周围。表层的肌肉是带状的腹直肌,它从耻骨一直延伸至胸骨。在腹直肌的两侧,各有一层薄而有力的腹外斜肌,沿着对角线的走向从肋骨延伸到腹直肌,从人体的正面看,腹外斜肌呈V字形。腹内斜肌在腹外斜肌之下与腹外斜肌相垂直。这两组斜肌相互协调,使躯干斜向扭转和弯曲。腹肌群的最内层肌肉是腹横肌,它像塑身内衣一样横裹着我们的躯干。我们通过收缩这块肌肉来收紧腹部。这个由腹横肌和腹斜肌组成的三层肌肉保护层为我们的身体提供一个强有力的、可延展的支撑结构,它保护着我们的内脏,在排泄时帮助收缩,并为我们做腹式呼吸(活动横膈膜的呼吸)提供了一个灵活的空间。
to be continued......
未完待续......
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